Emeka Anaza

James Madison University
Globalization of Sport: Title IX’s Athletic Policy Regulations as a Global and Social Change Agent
Sport is a globalized phenomenon. Sport activities are performed in almost every corner of the world. Unfortunately, many people, particularly marginalized groups encounter lack of access due to discrimination within primary, secondary, and post-secondary educational programs.  In sub-Saharan Africa, research studies show that sport is reserved as a “male preserve because of the think sport think man mentality, the belief that females are weaker or have inferior skills, gender roles, the belief that women’s sports are not a priority or rewarding, the role of the media and role models, and how corrupt systems of governance and leadership breeds discrimination” (Anaza & McDowell, 2017, p. 392). To enhance inclusion and participation, Anaza and McDowell (2017) suggested “administrators, managers, community leaders, and other stakeholders initiate transformative processes that will limit individual, social structural, cultural, and institutional sexism” (p. 395). DiMaggio and Powell’s (1993) work on mimetic institutional isomorphism served as a theoretical guide. This study’s objective was to explore the utility of Title IX’s Athletic Policy Regulations as a potential regulation that may lead to greater access and opportunity for marginalized groups in Nigeria. Qualitative interviews were conducted and the findings show that Title IX’s Athletic Policy Regulations may not be successful in enhancing access and curbing participatory discrimination.